Kingtronics Guidelines For Using Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors

When using Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors, please observe the following points to ensure optimum capacitor performance and long life.

1>DC electrolytic capacitors are polarized.

Make sure of the polarity which is marked on the body of the capacitor.
Application of the reversed voltage may cause a short circuit or damage to the capacitor.
Use bipolar capacitors when the polarity is not determined or unknown.
Note that DC electrolytic capacitors CAN NOT be used for AC application.

2>Bipolar capacitors
These capacitors are used only in pulse circuits as well as polarity reverse circuits, but not applicable in pure AC or high ripple current.

3>Do not apply voltage greater than the rated voltage
If a voltage exceeding the rated voltage is applied, the leakage current will increase, which will damage the capacitor.
Recommended working voltage is 70% – 80% of rated voltage.
Using capacitors at recommended working voltage prolongs capacitor life.

4>Do not allow excessive ripple current through the capacitor
The flow of ripple current greater than the permissible (rated) value will cause heating of the capacitor, which may decrease the capacitance and damage the capacitor.
Ripple current through the capacitor must be at or below the allowable level, generally not more than 80% of the rated current.

5>Use specially designed capacitors for the circuits where charge and discharge are frequently repeated.
In circuits subjected to rapid charge and discharge cycles, a capacitor may be damaged and its life may be shortened by capacitance decrease at higher temperature.

6. Operating temperature range.

The characteristics of capacitors change with the operating temperature.
The capacitance and leakage current increase and dissipation factor will decrease at higher temperatures. Usage at lower temperature will ensure longer life.

7. Temperature vs. Life.

The expected life of a capacitor is related to its ambient temperature.
Generally, if the ambient temperature is reduced 10℃, life is doubled at rated voltage.

8. Check operating frequency.

Electrolytes usually have their capacitance measured at 100 Hz. or 120 Hz.
However, remember that capacitance decreases and dissipation factor increase as the applied frequency becomes higher.

9. Capacitor Storage

Long periods of storage have virtually no effect on a capacitor’s capacitance and dissipation factor.
However, such periods can increase leakage current and decrease the capacitors withstand voltage.
Apply rated DC voltage treatment to the capacitors which have been stored for a long time.

10. The capacitor case is not insulated from the cathode terminal.

The capacitor’s case and cathode terminal connect through the electrolyte.
If the case is to be completely insulated, that insulation must be at the capacitor’s mounting point.

11. Do not apply excessive force to the terminals and leads.

An excessively strong force applied to the terminals and lead wires may cause leads to break or terminals to separate and, in turn, cause the internal contact to fail.

12. Cleaning of the circuit board after solder dipping.

Clean circuit boards to remove flux or other extraneous matter.
To ensure protection for the sleeve, its marking, and the capacitor’s sealing materials, the capacitor should never be washed or cleaned by halogenous agents or solvents such as trichlorethylene, xylene, acetone, etc.
Recommended cleaning solvents; Methanol, isopropanol ethanol, isobutene, petroleum ether, propanol and/ or commercial detergents.

13. Be cautious of the temperature and duration when soldering.
Soldering irons should be kept away from vinyl-insulated sleeves of capacitor.
When the capacitor is dipped in a solder bath, use at less than 260℃ and 10 seconds to avoid damaging the capacitor.

14. Hole positions on the circuit board.
When designing a circuit board, space the through-holes equal to the space between the capacitor’s lead wires.
If the spacing is either greater than or less than the capacitor’s leads, mounting will apply stress to the leads, causing short circuits, broken circuits, and increased current.
Also, through-holes on the circuit board as well as lead holes of post-process parts can result in solder splashing onto the vinyl sleeve causing damage.
Consider hole positions carefully.


Kt Kingtronics Shares How to Make (and Keep) a New Year’s Resolution

Are you making a resolution for 2018? Warning: More than half of all resolutions fail, but this year, they don’t have to be yours. Here’s how to identify the right resolution to improve your life, create a plan on how to reach it, and become part of the small group of people that successfully achieve their goal.

Pick the Right Resolution

You’ll give yourself your best shot at success if you set a goal that’s doable — and meaningful too.

According to the time management firm FranklinCovey, one third of resolutioners don’t make it past the end of January.

A lot of these resolutions fail because they’re not the right resolutions. And a resolution may be wrong for one of three main reasons:

• It’s a resolution created based on what someone else (or society) is telling you to change.
• It’s too vague.
• You don’t have a realistic plan for achieving your resolution.

Your goals should be smart — and SMART. That’s an acronym coined in the journal Management Review in 1981 for specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound. It may work for management, but it can also work in setting your resolutions, too.

Specific. Your resolution should be absolutely clear. “Making a concrete goal is really important rather than just vaguely saying ‘I want to lose weight.’ You want to have a goal: How much weight do you want to lose and at what time interval?”. “Five pounds in the next two months — that’s going to be more effective.”

Measurable. This may seem obvious if your goal is a fitness or weight loss related one, but it’s also important if you’re trying to cut back on something, too. If, for example, you want to stop biting your nails, take pictures of your nails over time so you can track your progress in how those nails grow back out. Logging progress into a journal or making notes on your phone or in an app designed to help you track behaviors can reinforce the progress, no matter what your resolution may be.

Achievable. This doesn’t mean that you can’t have big stretch goals. But trying to take too big a step too fast can leave you frustrated, or affect other areas of your life to the point that your resolution takes over your life — and both you and your friends and family flail. So, for example, resolving to save enough money to retire in five years when you’re 30 years old is probably not realistic, but saving an extra $100 a month may be. (And if that’s easy, you can slide that number up to an extra $200, $300 or $400 a month).

Relevant. Is this a goal that really matters to you, and are you making it for the right reasons? “If you do it out of the sense of self-hate or remorse or a strong passion in that moment, it doesn’t usually last long.” “But if you build up a process where you’re thinking harder about what’s good for you, you’re changing the structure of your life, you’re bringing people into your life who will reinforce that resolution, then I think you have a fighting chance.”

Time-bound. Like “achievable,” the timeline toward reaching your goal should be realistic, too. That means giving yourself enough time to do it with lots of smaller intermediate goals set up along the way. “Focus on these small wins so you can make gradual progress.” “If you’re building a habit, you’re planning for the next decade, not the next couple of months.”